The great Chinese ships in the Indian Ocean are admired by Battuta as technical wonders of the Middle Ages. Starting around the 11th century, the Song Dynasty was pushed out by the steppe tribes to the southern coast of China, so it turned its strategic focus to the sea. In 1132, the emperor established a permanent navy, an initiative almost unheard of in the East. Salem sanctuary for wayward cats poster. Chinese military leaders put maritime technology to a high priority, and their shipyard also began making a variety of large-sized military and maritime ships using iron nails, multi-layered hulls; many decks; Steering gear placed in the stern for high efficiency; navigation compass (allows accurate navigation even when the sky is cloudy); and sails-from-nose-upgraded (to help the ship run in almost direct direction with the wind). For a short time, the Chinese even gave up hegemony on their famous culture and borrowed sophisticated maritime techniques from the Persians and Indians.